Here’s an example of turning lemons into lemonade: scientists in Malaysia working on finding alternate disposal options for sludge (dried sewage), have discovered that it may be a viable alternative for cement in concrete production (Science Daily, Aug 28, 2015). The process first involves burning and drying ‘wet sludge cake’ to create a powder. This powder (domestic waste sludge powder or DWSP), is then used in varying proportions with traditional cement to produce concrete products in select grades. Initial findings were mixed: while compressive strength generally decreased as the proportion of dried sludge in the mix increased, the sludge mix concrete was much less permeable than regular concrete. Additional research is underway.